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Excel offers two options for entering a formula into a cell.Excel offers two options for entering a formula into a cell.• Typing a formulaExperienced Excel users prefer to either type formulas directly into a cell or in the formula bar. This is a good technique for skilled users who are familiar with the syntax of formulas (where to place commas and parentheses, the order of arguments, and more). If you are not sure of the syntax of the formula, type = and the name of the function, then press Ctrl + Shift + A. You will now see the syntax of the function.• Entering data into the function’s edit boxesThe edit boxes guide you in handling the syntax of functions.Short cuts for opening the Formula PaletteCtrl + A – opens the Formula Palette immediately after typing the name of the function. For example, type =SUM, and press Ctrl + A to open the Formula Palette.Shift +F3 – opens the Paste Function dialog box. Alternatively, use thePaste Function icon (fx) on the toolbarCopying a Formula, Relative and Absolute Reference
Relative referenceWhen a formula is copied, the relative reference is used. Relative reference is the distance, in rows and columns, between the reference and the cell containing the formula. For example, in Cell A1, type the number 100. In Cell B1, type the formula =A1. Cell B1 is one column to the right of Cell A1. When the formula is copied from Cell B1 to Cell B10, the distance between the reference and the cell containing the formula remains one column. The formula in Cell B10 is =A10.
Absolute referenceUse the previous example and select Cell B1. In the formula bar, select the reference A1, and press F4. The result is =$A$1.Copy the contents of Cell B1 to Cell B10. Notice that the formula does not change; the formula reference remains constant as =$A$1.